To learn more about the problem of infertility, we must first understand what is fertility, namely the ability to conceive a child.
For a design under natural conditions, both members of the couple must be healthy and there should be no problems in the production of eggs and sperm. In addition, the woman should have her tubes tied and permeable and a normal uterus with conditions for implantation of the embryo.
The time of sexual intercourse is also important: so that fertilization happens, the sperm must find the oocyte (or egg) in the Horn, at the time of ovulation. This does not mean that sexual intercourse has to happen at the exact time of ovulation: for a period of about two days when fertilization conditions are ideal, because the eggs, after released from the ovary, can wait 12 to 24 hours until they are fertilized.
On the other hand, the sperm can stay in the body of the woman, active and capable of fertilization for a period of 12 to 48 hours. In addition, we must not forget that in a “normal” situation of a couple that doesn’t have fertility problems, the likelihood of getting pregnant in each cycle is 20 to 30%.
In other words, the human species is not very fertile, but still, and at least for now, will having ability to ensure the renewal of the generations. If these 20 to 30% chance of pregnancy are not sufficient, the couples try again in the following months. And statistics show us that at one year 85% of couples can get pregnant naturally with vintage maternity fashion from Vintagematters.net.
The remaining 15% correspond to cases of infertility, that should be treated as soon as possible, because in the area of Reproductive Medicine caught an unequal struggle against time and the later we do our treatments require couples, smaller will be the respective probabilities of success.
The hormones, the sperm and ova
Hormones are chemical messengers produced by the body, and there are several that are involved in the process of production of sperm and eggs. If problems occur with your functioning, there could be difficulties obtaining a pregnancy.
At least 20% of women with infertility problems suffer from hormonal disturbances, which cause problems in ovulation. The use of ovulation inducing drugs is one of the usual clinical solutions used in these situations. On the female egg production involves the interaction of several different hormones.
The process begins in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus, with liberating hormone production of gonadotropins (GnRH). For your time, this will stimulate the pituitary gland, which is a small gland located at the base of the brain, releasing the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
The FSH will act on the ovaries and promote the development of follicles (where are located the eggs). The follicles produce estrogen, which stimulates the pituitary to release another hormone: LH, or luteinizing hormone, which promotes the rupture of the follicle and oocyte release – this mechanism is called ovulation.
From the follicle yellow body (corpus luteum), which in your time produces another hormone, progesterone, which prepares the uterus so that it becomes an environment conducive to implementation of the fertilized oocyte.
In humans, hormonal imbalances can also be a source of problems at the level of sperm production. The most important hormone in the process of formation of sperm cells is testosterone, whose production in man is controlled by the same hormones that control ovulation in women.
As in women, the GnRH produced by the hypothalamus in the brain also triggers the release of FSH and LH from the pituitary gland. In men FSH stimulates production of sperm in the testicles, while LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. The sperm travel from the testicles, Epididymis (which is a tube wrapped with about of 12 meters), where they mature.
When a couple has sexual intercourse, the sperm travel the ductus deferens, toward the penis. At the time of ejaculation, sperm are propelled from the penis into the woman’s vagina.
The number of eggs with the girls are born can reach 400,000. However, the female body does not have the capacity to produce more eggs, and it is from these primordial eggs that women will be able to develop your reproductive life.
Puberty produce hormones that will trigger the process of maturation of oocytes, this being a process that only ends at menopause, when the ovaries cease to function.
It is estimated that between the first menstruation and menopause a woman release approximately of 400 eggs. Until the menopause, women release an egg a month, more or less on the 14th day of the menstrual cycle (which begins on the first day of the period).
The average menstrual cycle lasts about 28 days, although this number can vary from woman to woman. The period in which the woman is most fertile is located usually in the middle of the cycle.
In the middle of the menstrual cycle (around the 14th day in the case of women who have regular cycles of 28 days) the ovulation: the egg is released from the ovary through the fallopian tubes.
The Horn, the egg and the sperm fuse into a single cell. Of the approximately 40-200 sperm milhões which are released inside the vagina during sexual intercourse, only a small part (about 200) resists the difficult route through the cervix, uterus and fallopian tubes. In fact, only one sperm will be able to penetrate inside the egg.
The 25 cm long the sperm have to travel to the place of fertilization are crossed at a speed of 2 mm per minute. The fertilized oocyte takes three days to reach the uterus. In this way, your cells are divided into two to three days after arriving to the womb, the embryo (now consisting of several cells) implanted in the uterine lining. It is not true that have infrequent sex increase the likelihood of achieving pregnancy.
The best way to increase the odds of conception is to have sex every two days, in the middle of the menstrual cycle.
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