Anemia in Pregnancy?

Pregnancy incorporates a system that includes mother, fetus and placenta, and so a triad that is necessary to sustain. The normal pregnancy leads to many changes in maternal Physiology, including changes in haematological parameters.

Anemia is a condition in which there is no red blood cells (erythrocytes) healthy enough for the proper transport of oxygen to the tissues of the body, in order to satisfy the physiological needs of the organism. It is characterized by descent, below normal, one or more of the major erythrocyte parameters (hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, or red blood cells).

Pregnancy incorporates a system that includes mother, fetus and placenta, and so a triad that is necessary to sustain. The normal pregnancy leads to many changes in maternal Physiology, including changes in haematological parameters.

Anemia is one of the most common problems during pregnancy with maternity clothing and contributes to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The most frequent cause of anemia is iron deficiency.

The CBC is more clinic analysis indicated for the screening of anemia, because it allows to quantify a set of parameters, namely, the number of red blood cells and haemoglobin concentration in the blood of the pregnant.

During the prenatal monitoring, laboratory medicine plays a central role in the screening of diseases that can affect the mother and the fetus. The complete blood count is performed early in the first trimester of pregnancy, before 13 weeks, and to analyze the blood cells of pregnant, in addition to the screening of anemia, allows to assess the General State of health of the mother and throw and control various changes.

Anemia and iron deficiency have negative impact on the mother, fetus and placenta. When it comes to pregnancy, anemia can lead to heart failure, postpartum hemorrhage, predisposition to infection, delay in pos-cesariana recovery, risk of embolism and the uterus, with iron deficiency, may have small weaknesses in muscle fibrils and difficulty in contracting.

For the fetus anemia may cause intrauterine growth delay, risk of fetal death in utero three times and prematurity. A baby when he is born in an environment deficient in iron deposits can develop cognitive deficiencies and mental skills.

CBC: the interpretation of results

The circulating cells in the blood are divided into three types: red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes) and platelets. The CBC is considered “complete”, as it is a automated count blood cells, namely: red blood cells (GV), concentration of hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), packed cell volume (VGM), hemoglobin average globular (HGM), average concentration of hemoglobin (CMHG) globular, white blood cells (GB), differential leukocyte count (WBC) and platelet count.

This clinic is held from a normal harvest of blood from a vein in the forearm of the mother.

In pregnant women, anemia is defined when the concentration of hemoglobin is less than 11 g/dL in the first and third quarter and less than 10.5 g/dL in the second quarter.

By Maria Jose Rego de Sousa, m.d., PhD in Medicine, specialist in clinical pathology

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